The state of CSS Frameworks in 2023

… and why you are still right betting on TailwindCSS.

Florian Kromer


The year 2023 comes to an end. For me, this is a time to look back and think about whether I’m still on the right track.

When it comes to CSS a pretty good resource to get some data to answer this question is the state of CSS. As far as I know it’s the biggest survey for professional CSS developers world wide. From 2019 onwards it’s repeated every year and they publish metric trends. This allows to do some forecasting based on most reliable data you can probably get out there. It can help to answer fundamental questions like:

  • How big is the demand for the CSS framework in the market? (How much is it used? Is the usage increasing or decreasing over time?)
  • How good is the framework? (How many developers like it?)

Ratios over time


Bootstrap and TailwindCSS are pretty close and by far the frameworks most developers know about that they exist.

Awareness: (totalnever heard) / total


Bootstrap is the most widely used framework, followed by TailwindCSS with some significant gap. Usage of others is even far behind TailwindCSS.

Usage: (would use again + would not use again) / total


OpenProps is the framework most developers are interested right now. Followed by TailwindCSS, UnoCSS and PureCSS pretty close to each other. Others are far behind. While beeing used most the developers are not interest into Bootstrap much anymore.

Interest: want to learn / (want to learn + not interested)